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Scientists reveal regions of the brain where serotonin promotes patience: Serotonin keeps mice waiting longer for food, depending on where in the brain it’s released

scientists reveal regions of the brain where serotonin promotes patience: serotonin keeps mice waiting longer for food, depending on where in the brain it’s released

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We’ve all been there. Whether we’re stuck in traffic at the end of a long day, or eagerly anticipating the release of a new book, film or album, there are times when we need to be patient. Learning to suppress the impulse for instant gratification is often vital for future success, but how patience is regulated in the brain remains poorly understood.
Now, in a study on mice conducted by the Neural Computation Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), the authors, Dr. Katsuhiko Miyazaki and Dr. Kayoko Miyazaki, pinpoint specific areas of the brain that individually promote patience through the action of serotonin. Their findings were published 27th November in Science Advances.
“Serotonin is one of the most famous neuromodulators of behavior, helping to regulate mood, sleep-wake cycles and appetite,” said Dr. Katsuhiko Miyazaki. “Our research shows that release of this chemical messenger also plays a crucial role in promoting patience, increasing the time that mice are willing to wait for a food reward.”
Their most recent work draws heavily on previous research, where the unit used a powerful technique called optogenetics — using light to stimulate specific neurons in the brain — to …

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Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen

two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen

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By Alexey Grinin, Arthur Matveev, Dylan C. Yost, Lothar Maisenbacher, Vitaly Wirthl, Randolf Pohl, Theodor W. Hänsch, Thomas Udem
Science27 Nov 2020 : 1061-1066

The two-photon 1S-3S transition frequency in H atoms is precisely measured by direct frequency comb spectroscopy below 1 kHz.

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Earth911 Reader: This Week’s Sustainability, Recycling, & Science News Collection

earth911 reader: this week’s sustainability, recycling, & science news collection

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The Earth911 Reader summarizes the week’s sustainability, recycling, and science news, making it easy for you to stay up-to-date. Be sure not to miss this week’s opportunities to support environmental and sustainability projects.
IN SCIENCE
Deforestation Efforts Not Making Needed Progress
The New York Declaration on Forests reports that national and global programs to prevent deforestation are falling short of their goals because of a lack of transparency. The nonprofit says, “Progress toward Goals 3 and 4 — reducing deforestation from infrastructure and extractive developments, while supporting sustainable livelihoods — is too slow to protect remaining intact forest landscapes.” Infrastructure projects account for 17% of deforestation, mainly due to China’s Belt and Road Initiative. The organization argues that accountability combined with transparency is required to force economic planners to acknowledge their words and deeds are not aligned.
Arctic Thaw Awakens Ancient Microorganisms
As permafrost melts in Siberia, Alaska, Canada and Iceland accelerate, humans are at risk from microbes that have remained frozen for millennia. For example, anthrax broke out in Russia after the disease was released by melting permafrost due to higher ocean temperatures. We cannot know the consequences that will come to pass, but working to prevent the thawing of Northern …

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Hey Ray: Slowing Down For Science

hey ray: slowing down for science

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PITTSBURGH (KDKA) — Sometimes, science happens in an instant. It can be too fast for our eyes and brains to process the tiny scientific details of what’s actually happening.
Thanks to slow-motion videography, we can take things that happen in a split second and see the physics behind our world play out. And this technology is built into many newer cell phones.
The levitating spring is a science project that perfectly captures this phenomenon.
All you need is a step stool or ladder, depending on how tall you are, and a slow-motion camera. You will also need a pre-tensioned spring, otherwise known as a slinky.
Dangle the spring and drop it while someone is recording your slow-motion video.
In real time, it doesn’t look like much is happening, but in slow motion, the bottom of the spring defies gravity.
It hovers until the top of the spring hits it. But why?
When the spring is stretched out and no longer bouncing, it’s at equilibrium. That is the point where the gravitational force downward is equal to the spring’s force upward.
That upward force is caused by the spring or the slinky trying to get back to its …

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Best science books of 2020

best science books of 2020

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In one of many unexpected outcomes of 2020, “the science” has become big news. Politicians are claiming it, protesters are disputing it, and all of a sudden everyone is an expert on superspreader events, RNA vaccines and what happens at the bottom of an Excel spreadsheet. It’s hard to know who to trust, and it’s more important than ever that the public has a basic understanding of what “science” says, so we are less likely to be deceived. Fortunately, a number of excellent writers are here to make it accessible, absorbing and staggeringly informative.The topical Outbreaks and Epidemics by Meera Senthilingam (Icon), for example, is crammed with information on the history and context of diseases we think we know about. It explains how effective track and trace, combined with a thorough vaccination programme, was crucial in the eradication of smallpox, and why climate crisis and drug resistance make future pandemics more likely. It further shows how politics affects the way we treat disease: the chapter on tuberculosis is titled “What happens when nobody cares”. It even manages a last-minute update about Covid-19. (We could have been a lot more ready if we’d really wanted to be.) Adam …

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India’s push for gender equity in science

india’s push for gender equity in science

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Written by Esha Roy
| New Delhi |

Updated: November 28, 2020 8:14:45 am

The DST has also found that women are either not promoted, or very often drop out mid-career to attend to their families. (Representational image)One of the focuses of the new Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, currently being drafted by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), will be to increase the participation of women in science. To this end, the DST will incorporate a system of grading institutes depending on the enrolment of women and the advancement of the careers of women faculty and scientists. The concept borrows from a programme started by the UK in 2005 called the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women’s Academic Network), which is now being adopted by many countries. The DST will soon launch a pilot, which the British Council has helped it develop.
What is Athena SWAN?
The Athena SWAN Charter is an evaluation and accreditation programme in the UK enhancing gender equity in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine (STEMM). Participating research organisations and academic institutions are required to analyse data on gender equity and develop action plans for improvement. The programme recognises such efforts with bronze, silver or gold accreditation.
Institutions that sign …

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Scientists reveal regions of the brain where serotonin promotes patience

scientists reveal regions of the brain where serotonin promotes patience

BEGIN ARTICLE PREVIEW:

We’ve all been there. Whether we’re stuck in traffic at the end of a long day, or eagerly anticipating the release of a new book, film or album, there are times when we need to be patient. Learning to suppress the impulse for instant gratification is often vital for future success, but how patience is regulated in the brain remains poorly understood.
Now, in a study on mice conducted by the Neural Computation Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), the authors, Dr. Katsuhiko Miyazaki and Dr. Kayoko Miyazaki, pinpoint specific areas of the brain that individually promote patience through the action of serotonin. Their findings were published 27th November in Science Advances.
“Serotonin is one of the most famous neuromodulators of behavior, helping to regulate mood, sleep-wake cycles and appetite,” said Dr. Katsuhiko Miyazaki. “Our research shows that release of this chemical messenger also plays a crucial role in promoting patience, increasing the time that mice are willing to wait for a food reward.”
Their most recent work draws heavily on previous research, where the unit used a powerful technique called optogenetics – using light to stimulate specific neurons in the brain – to …

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Abrupt shift to hotter and drier climate over inner East Asia beyond the tipping point

abrupt shift to hotter and drier climate over inner east asia beyond the tipping point

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6Key Laboratory of Humid Subtropical Eco-Geographical Process (Ministry of Education), College of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.2Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

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News at a glance

news at a glance

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SCI COMMUN### Infectious diseases The 11th Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is officially over, giving the country respite from the disease for the first time in more than 2 years. On 18 November, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that no new cases had been identified for 42 days, twice the incubation period for the deadly virus. The outbreak, in the western Équateur province, started in late May, just as a bigger one in the eastern DRC was coming to an end. (That outbreak had killed 2200 people.) The Équateur outbreak sickened 130 and killed 55; a campaign that vaccinated more than 40,000 people is credited with helping end it. Special portable coolers that keep the vaccine at −80°C for up to 1 week allowed health workers to administer the shots in communities deep in the rainforest, accessible only by boat or helicopter. The same technology will be useful in efforts to distribute COVID-19 vaccines in Africa, says Matshidiso Moeti, WHO’s regional director. The coronavirus pandemic complicated the fight against Ebola, WHO says, but the expertise gained by local health workers in earlier outbreaks in the region was a major advantage. They will remain on the lookout for potential flare-ups. $1,000,000 —Gift …

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