Recalibrating global data center energy-use estimates


Data centers represent the information backbone of an increasingly digitalized world. Demand for their services has been rising rapidly ([ 1 ][1]), and data-intensive technologies such as artificial intelligence, smart and connected energy systems, distributed manufacturing systems, and autonomous vehicles promise to increase demand further ([ 2 ][2]). Given that data centers are energy-intensive enterprises, estimated to account for around 1% of worldwide electricity use, these trends